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Locus

Roma

Archaeological evidence shows that the area around Rome has been inhabited since around 14,000 years ago. Excavations support the theory that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill, which was built over the area of the Roman Forum.

Brothers active in Roma

 

Mithraic monuments of Roma

 

Mitreo di Santa Prisca

The Mithraeum of Santa Prisca houses remarkable frescoes showing the initiates in procession.

CIMRM 476

 

Mitreo di San Clemente

The Mithraeum under the Basilica of San Clemente made part of a notable Roman house.

CIMRM 338

 

Mitreo Barberini

The Barberini Mithraeum was discovered in 1936 in the garden of the Palazzo Barberini, owned by Conte A. Savorgnan di Brazza.

CIMRM 389

 

Mitreo del Circo Massimo

The Mithraeum of the Circus Maximus was discovered in 1931 during work carried out to create a storage area for the scenes and costumes of the Opera House within the Museums of Rome building.

CIMRM 434

 

Mithraeum of the Baths of Caracalla

The Mitreo delle terme di Caracalla is one of the largest temples dedicated to Mithras ever found in Rome.

CIMRM 457

 

Mitreo di Santo Stefano Rotondo

The Mitreo dei Castra Peregrinorum was discovered under the church of Santo Stefano Rotondo in Rome.

 

Mitreo del Campidoglio «lo perso»

This temple of Mithras on the north side of the Capitoline Hill in Rome no longer exists.

CIMRM 414

 

Mitreo dell'Esquilino

In a house from the time of Constantine, a Lararium was found with a statue of Isis-Fortuna. The Mithraeum was a door next to it, on a lower room.

CIMRM 356

 

Mitreo d'Orazio Muti

This Mithraic temple, now disappeared, is known thanks to the numerous remains recorded since 1594 in the 'Memorie di varie antichità trovate in diversi luoghi della città di Roma'.

 

Aion of Orazio Muti

This monument has been identified from 'Memorie di varie antichità trovate in diversi luoghi della città di Roma', a book by Flaminio Vacca of 1594.

 

Fresco of procession of grades at Santa Prisca

Procession of figures dressed in different ways with inscriptions calling them by the seven grades of the Mithraic initiation cult.

CIMRM 480

 

Aion of Villa Albani

White marble statue of Lion-head god of time, formerly in the Villa Albani, nowadays in the Musei Vaticani.

CIMRM 545

 

Tauroctony of Ottaviano Zeno

In this relief of Mithras as bull slayer, recorded in 1562 in the collection of A. Magarozzi, Cautes and Cautopates have been replaced by trees still bearing the torches.

CIMRM 335

 

Tauroctony of the Villa Borghese

This relief of Mithras slaying the bull was erected in Piazza del Campidoglio, moved to Villa Borghese and is now in the Louvre Museum.

CIMRM 415

 

Torchbearer of Porta Portese

This is one of the two torchbearers, probably Cautes, transformed into Paris, now in the British Museum.

CIMRM 506

 

Two-sided relief of Fiano Romano

The marble shows Mithras slaying the bull, on one side, and Sol and Mithras feasting on a bull skin, on the other.

CIMRM 641

 

Petrogeny of Santo Stefano Rotondo

The sculpture of Mithras rock-birth from Santo Stefano Rotondo bears an inscription of Aurelius Bassinus, curator of the cult.

 

Major fresco of the Mitreo Barberini

The votive fresco from the Mithraeum Barberini displays several scenes from Mithras's myth.

CIMRM 390

 

Tauroctony of Circo Massimo

This remarkable marble relief from the end of the 3rd century was discovered in the most remote room of the Mithraeum in the Circo Massimo.

CIMRM 435

 

Tauroctonia del Cortile del Belvedere

White marble relief depicting Mithras slaying the bull, dedicated by Atimetus.

CIMRM 546

 

Slab of Sol Invictus

The slab of the Sun god has not yet connected to Mithras.

CIMRM 373

 

Tauroctony found under the Palazzo Montecitorio (CIMRM 430)

This relief was found under the Palazzo Montecitorio, in Rome, and bought by the Liebighaus at Frankfort.

CIMRM 430

 

Altar of Vettius Agrorius Praetextatus

The marble altar mentions Vettius Agrorius Praetextatus as Pater Sacrorum and Patrum and his wife Aconia Fabia Paulina.

CIMRM 420

 

Aion from Villa Barberini

This lion-headed marble was found on the ruins of the Alban Villa of Domitianus.

CIMRM 326

 

Submission scene from Barberini

This scene of the main fresco of the Mithraeum Barberini seems to depict part of the initiation into the Mithraic Mysteries.

 

Tauroctony relief exposed at the Hermitage Museum

The relief marble of Mithras sacrifying the bull, exposed on the Hermitage Museum comes from Rome.

CIMRM 603

 

Tauroctony exhibited at the Cincinnati Art Museum

In the tauroctonic relief on display at the Cincinnati Art Museum, Mithras slaughters the bull over a rocky background.

 

Second Petrogeny of Santo Stefano Rotondo

The second statue of Mithras rock-birth was found in the Mitreo di Santo Stefano Rotondo shows a childish Mitras emerging from the rock.

 

Tauroctony of Santo Stefano Rotondo

The relief of Mithras killing the bull of Stefano Rotodon preserves part of his polycromy and depicts two unusual figures: Hesperus and an owl.

 

Zeus Brontoon sanctuary near Villa dei Quintili

Mithras and other oriental gods were worshipped in the shrine of Zeus near the Villa of the Quintilians in Rome.

CIMRM 634

 

Tauroctony from Vermaseren's private collection

Maarten Vermaseren acquired this rosso antico marble of Mithras slaying the bull in 1961.

 

Mitreo della Piazza Dante

The Mithraeum located in Piazza Dante in Rome was discovered in 1874 along with a series of monuments dedicated by a Pater named Primus.

CIMRM 349

 

Taurcotony statue of the Esquiline Hill

Except for the serpent, the sculpture of the taurcotony found on the Esquiline Hill lacks the usual animals that accompany Mithras in sacrifice.

CIMRM 352

 

Mithras petrogenitus of the Esquilino

The relief of Mithras being born from the rock of the Esquiline shows the young god naked, as usual, with a torch and a dagger in his hands.

CIMRM 353

 

Tauroctony relief of the Esquiline

The relief of Mithras slaying the bull found on the Esquiline Hill includes two additional scenes with Mithras and two other figures.

CIMRM 350

 

Tarouctony of the Palazzo San Marco

This sculpture of Mithras slaying the bull was bequeathed to the Republic of Venice in 1793 by Ambassador Girolamo Zulian.

CIMRM 584

 

Mithraic Sol of Piazza Dante

The relief of Sol was found during the construction of Piazza Dante in Rome in 1874.

CIMRM 354

 

Head of Sol / Helios intarsio from Sant Prisca

The intarsium of Sol found in the Mithraeum of Santa Prisca is composed of several varieties of marble.

 

Petrogeny of San Clemente

Mithras birth from the knees upwards emerging from a rock and wearing as usual a Phrygian cap.

CIMRM 344

 

Inscription by Proficentius, Rome

This marble slab bears an inception be the Pater Proficentius to whom Mithras has suggested to build and devote a temple.

CIMRM 423

 

Mithraeum under the Basilica of S. Lorenzo

In 1938 this Mithraeum was found 3.45 mtrs under the Basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, in a cellar near the Sacrament's Chapel.

CIMRM 421

 

Altar from the Mitreo sotto la Basilica di San Lorenzo

This cylindrical marble altar was dedicated by the same Pater Proficentius as the slab, both monuments found in the Mithraeum beneath the Basilica of San Lorenzo.

CIMRM 422

 

Mitreo all'Arco di San Lazzaro

Three mithraic monuments were found in 1931, suggesting that a mithraeum probably existed in the area.

CIMRM 472

 

Stele of the Arch of San Lazzaro

This stele found at the foot of the Aventine bears an inscription of Kastos father and son, and mentions several syndexioi who shared the same temple.

CIMRM 473

 

Altar dedicated by Pater Patrum Augentius

This altar, now lost, mentions that the Pater Patrum passed on the attributes of the sacred Corax to his son.

CIMRM 403

 

Mitreo di S. Silvestro in Capite

This Mithraic temple, aka Mithraeum of the Olympii, was discovered in the 15th century in Rome, although traces have been lost except for a few monuments with remarkable inscriptions.

CIMRM 399

 

Inscription of Olympus to his grandfather

This monument is the only one still available from the disappeared Mithraeum in Piazza S. Silvestro in Capite.

CIMRM 406

 

Inscription of the Olympius for a Leo

The inscription explains the transmission of the fourth Mithraic degree through the Paters of the Mitraeum of San Silvestro.

CIMRM 400

 

Inscription of Kastos father and son

Second Mithraic monument dedicated by the Kastos family, found not far from the Arco di S. Lazzaro, in Rome.

CIMRM 474

 

Inscription of Septimius Archelaus

This marble plaque was made by a Pater and priest Lucius Septimius Archelaus of Mithras for him, his wife and his freedmen and freedwomen.

CIMRM 511

 

Marble slab with inscription of Aelius Urbanus

The Mithraic fellow P. Aelius Urbanus mentions that he built the sacred area of the Mithraeum Circo Massimo.

CIMRM 449

 

Fragments of plaque from Circo Massimo

The inscription mentions the Pater Cossio Atiano.

CIMRM 451

 

Altars found near Santa Maria in Monticelli

These three small marble altars mention the 'magister of the first year' Marcus Aemilius Chrysanthus and other members of the same community.

CIMRM 517

 

Marble slab with inscription from Mitreo Barberini

The inscription mentions the name of the donor, Yperanthes, of Persian origin.

CIMRM 391

 

Altar from Mitreo di San Clemente

The altar of the Mithraeum of San Clemente bears the Tauroctony on the front, Cautes and Cautopates on the right and left sides and a serpent on the back.

CIMRM 339

 

Altars to Cautes and Cautopates of Stefano Rotondo

These two parallel altars to the diophores were dedicated by the Pater and a Leo from the Mithraeum of S. Stefano Rotondo.

 

Mithras pantocrator of the Villa Altieri

This unusual representation of Mithras standing on a bull was kept in the Casino di Villa Altieri sul Monte Esquilino until the 19th century.

CIMRM 334

 

Altar of Aemilius Chrysanthus to the Invincible Sol

Aemilius Chrysanthus shares the expenses of this monument with a decurio named Limbricius Polides.

CIMRM 519

 

Altar to Arimanius of the Esquilino

This altar mentioning the god Arimanius was found in 1655 at Porta San Giovanni, on the Esquilino.

CIMRM 369

 

Fresco of lions at Santa Prisca

The inscription is above a procession of men carrying animals, bread, a crater and other objects that appear to be in preparation for a feast.

CIMRM 481

 

Inscription of Santi Marcellino e Pietro al Laterano

This inscription mentions a Pater for the first known time.

CIMRM 362

 

Altar to a Perses of S. Silvestro in Capite

This monument was erected on the occasion of the elevation of a member to the Mithraic grade of Perses.

CIMRM 402

 

Tauroctony on display in Boston

This fragmentary relief depicts Mithras killing the bull in the usual manner, remarkably dressed in oriental attire.

CIMRM 607

 

Altar to Mithras at the Walters Art Museum

This altar bears an inscription to the health of the emperor Commodus by a certain Marcus Aurelius, his father and two other fellows.

CIMRM 510

 

Cautopates in the Walters Art Museum

This fragmentary relief shows Cautopates bordered by three of the six zodiacal signs with which He is associated: Capricorn, Sagittarius and Scorpio.

 

Grand camée de France

Some authors have speculated that the flying figure dressed in oriental style and holding a globe could be Mithras.

 

Fragments of a Mithriac relief with Jupiter and Sol

These three fragments of carved marble depict Jupiter, Sol, Luna and a naked man wearing a Phrygian cap, with inscriptions calling Mithras Sanctus Dominum.

CIMRM 332

 

Mitreo di Piazza della Navicella

Several fragmentary Mithraic remains dedicated by a certain Agatho in the Caelius suggest that a Mithraeum existed in the area.

CIMRM 327

 

Altar with Minerva and a water god

According to the inscription on it, this altar probably supported a statue of Jupiter.

CIMRM 330

 

Relief of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva

This marble relief bears an inscription by Marcus Modius Agatho, who dedicated several monuments to Mithras on the Caelian Hill in Rome.

CIMRM 328

 

Mithraic slab from the catacombs of Vibia

This inscription was commissioned by a family of priests of the invincible god Mithras.

 

The Acosolium of the Mysteries in the Hypogeum of Vibia

The epigrahy includes a mention of Marcus Aurelius, a priest of the god Sol Mithras, who bestowed joy and pleasure on his students.

 

Tauroctony of Albergo Constanzi

Only a fragment of this marble group of Mithras killing the bull remains.

CIMRM 535

 

Colonne with inscription by workers of the pig market

The inscription included the names of the brotherhood, which are now lost.

 

Altars of two Clarissimi in the Phrygianum of the Vatican

Both of them were discovered in 1609 in the foundations of the façade of the church of San Pietro, Rome.

CIMRM 513

 

Cippus à Zeus Helios great Serapis

This small cippus to Zeus, Helios and Serapis includes Mithras as one of the main gods, although some authors argue that it could be the name of the donor.

CIMRM 463

 

Inscription of Aurelius Mithres

This monument, found in the Domus Flavia in Rome, bears an inscription by a certain Aurelius Mithres.

 

Tauroctony of the Mitreo dell'Esquilino

This simple relief of Mithras killing the bull without his companions Cautes and Cautopates was found in the so-called Mithraeum of the Esquilino, Rome.

CIMRM 357

 

Tauroctony of via di Borgo

This relief of Mithras Tauroctonos from Rome bears the inscription of three brothers, two of them lions.

CIMRM 366

 

Tauroctony/Repast of Castra Pretoria

This fragment of a double relief shows a tauroctony on one side and the sacred meal, including a serving Corax, on the other.

CIMRM 397

 

Base with inscription of Priscus Eucheta to Navarze

This inscription, which doesn't mention Mithras, was found near the church of Santa Balbina on the Aventine in Rome.

CIMRM 501

 

Tauroctony of Villa Borghese

This is one of the three reliefs of Mithras as a bullkiller from the Villa Borghese collection that belong to the Louvre museum, now in the Louvre Abu Dhabi.

CIMRM 588

 

Tauroctony sculpture of Villa Borghese

This sculpture of Mithras killing the bull, which belongs to the Louvre Museum, is currently on display in Varsovia.

CIMRM 587

 

Tauroctony relief found between Porta Portese and St Pancrace

Franz Cumont bought this relief of Mithras as a bullkiller from a dealer who claimed to have found it in a vineyard near the church of Saint Pancrace, in Rome.

CIMRM 585

 

Tauroctony relief of Villa Borghese

This is one of the three reliefs depicting Mithras killing the bull that the Louvre Museum acquired from the Roman Villa Borghese collection.

CIMRM 586

 

Tauroctony in Copenhagen

This statue of Mithras as a bullkiller was bought at Rome where it might be found.

CIMRM 596

 

Candelabrum of Doryphorus

This magnificent candelabrum was found in Rome in 1803, in the Syrian Temple of Janicule.

CIMRM 508

 

Inscription of Flavius Antistianus from Rome

This inscription was dedicated to God Cautes by a certain Flavius Antistianus, Pater Patrorum in Rome.

CIMRM 336

 

Painted tauroctony of Rome

This unusual mural depicting Mithras killing the bull was found near the Colosseum in 1668.

CIMRM 337

 

Oceanus-Saturn of Santa Prisca

The fragmented tauroctony of the Mitreo di Santa Prisca rests on the naked figure of a bearded man, probably Ocean or Saturn.

CIMRM 478

 

Tauroctony of Santa Prisca

Even if only a few fragments remain, it is very likely that the main niche of the Mitreo di Santa Prisca contained the usual representation of Mithras killing the bull.

CIMRM 479

 

Torchbearer restored as Paris

This sculpture, probably of Cautopates, now in the Musei Vaticani, was transformed into Paris.

CIMRM 507

 

Tauroctony of Palazzo Mattei di Giove

This relief of Mithras as a bullkiller, probably found in Rome, has been part of the Palazzo Mattei collection since at least the end of the 18th century.

CIMRM 534

 

Bust of Sol from San Clemente

This marble bust of Sol, found in the Mitreo di San Clemente, had five holes in the head where rays had been fixed.

CIMRM 343

 

Inscription of Sabinus from San Clemente

This marble slab, found in the Mithraeum of San Clemente, bears an inscription by a certain Aelius Sabinus for the health of the Emperor Antoninus Pius and his sons.

CIMRM 347

 

Tauroctony of Circo Massimo

This marble relief depicting Mithras as a bull slayer was found in the back room of the Mithraeum of the Circus Maximus.

CIMRM 437

 

Altar of Rufius Caeionius Sabinus

In this 4th-century Roman altar, the senator Rufius Caeionius Sabinus defines himself as Pater of the sacred rites of the unconquered Mithras, having undergone the taurobolium.

CIMRM 522

 

Cautes of the mitreo di Santa Prisca

The marble statue of Cautes, found in the Mithraeum of Santa Prisca, was originally a Mercury.

CIMRM 477

Inscriptions of Roma

Nama [patribus] / ab oriente / ad occiden[tem] / tutela Saturni; Nama H[eliodro]mis / tut[la]a S[ol]is; Nama Persis / tutela Lunae; Nama l[e]on[i-]b[us] / tutela Iovis; Nama militibus / tutela Mart[is]; Na[ma] Nymphis / tut-/ela Veneris; [Nama coracibus tutla Mercurri].
Tribute [to the Fathers], from East to West, protection of Saturn; tribute to the Heliodromus, protection of Sol; tribute to the Persians, protection of the Moon; tribute to the Lions, protection of Jupiter; tribute to the Soldiers, protection of Mars; tribute to the Bridegrooms, protection of Venus; [tribute to the Ravens, protection of Mercury].

Fresco of procession of grades at Santa Prisca

Nama Sebesio. / Deo Soli invict[o] Mitrhe (sic!) / C(aii) Aufidii Ianuarius [et…] Nam/a/ ne CS
Tribute to Sebesius.
To the invincible Sol god Mithras. Caius Aufidius Ianuarius [and Caius Aufidius ---].

Tauroctony of the Villa Borghese

Petram genetricem / Aur(elius) Bassinus aedituus / principiorum cast(rorum) pereg(rinorum) / dedicavit hoc in loco et d(ono) d(edit) / antistante A(ulo) Caedicio / Prisciano eq(uite) R(omano) patre
The Birth stone, Aurelius Bassinus, guardian of the headquarters (principia) of the Peregrine camp, dedicated in this place and donated it, with Aulus Caecidius Priscianus, Roman knight, Father (pater), as witness

Petrogeny of Santo Stefano Rotondo

Deo Soli Invicto Mithrae Ti(tus) Cl(audius) Hermes ob votum dei typum d(onum) d(edit).
To the Sun god Mithra, Tiberius Claudius Hermes following a vow offers the image of the god.

Tauroctony of Circo Massimo

Soli invicto deo / Atimetus Aug(ustorum) n(ostrorum) ser(vus) act(uarius) praediorum Romaniarorum.
To Sol the unconquered god. Atimetus, slave of our Augusti, overseer of the public estates.

Tauroctonia del Cortile del Belvedere

Soli invicto / pro salute imp(eratorum) / et genio n(umeri) / eq(uitum) sing(ula- rium) / eorum M. Ulp(ius) / Chresimus sace[rd(os)] / Iovis Dolich[eni] / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) l(aetus) [m(erito)]
Dedicated to Sol Invictus and to the Genius of the Imperial Batavian horseguards (equites singulares) for the emperors' health, by M. Ulpius Chresimus, priest of Jupiter Dolichenus

Slab of Sol Invictus

D(is) M(anibus).
Vettius Agorius Praetextatus
augur, p[o]ntifex Vestae,
pontifex Sol[is], quindecemvir
curialis Herc[u]lis, sacratus
Libero et Eleusiniis, hierophanta,
neocorus, tauroboliatus,
pater patrum, in [r]e publica vero
quaestor candidatus,
pr(a)etorurbanus,
corrector Tusciae et Umbriae,
consularis Lusitaniae,
proconsule Achaiae,
praefectus urbi,
legatus a senatu missus V,
praefectus praetorio {II} Italiae et
Illyrici, consul ordinarius
designatus,
et Aconia Fabia Paulina, c(larissima) f(emina),
sacrata Cereri et Eleusiniis,
sacrata apud (A)eginam Hecatae,
tauroboliata, hierophantria.
hi coniuncti simul vixerunt ann(os) XL.
To the Manes.
Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, Augur, Pontiff of Vesta, Pontiff of Sol, member of the Board of Fifteen, Priest of Hercules, initiated into the mysteries of the Liber and the Eleusinian gods, introducer into the sacred service, temple overseer, initiated into the bull sacrifice, father of fathers [in the Mithras cult], but in the community Quaestor as candidate of the emperor, praetor urbanus, corrector of Etruria and Umbria, consular governor of Lusitania, proconsul of Achaia, city prefect, seven times sent as a legate of the Senate [to the Emperor to Constantinople], Praetorian Prefect of Italy and Illyria, designated regular consul, and Aconia Fabia Paulina, Hekate of Aegina, initiated to the bull sacrifice, inititated into the sacred divine service. These two have lived together for forty years.

Altar of Vettius Agrorius Praetextatus

D(onum) deo invicto d(ederunt) / Marci Matti / Fortuna/tus / et Alexander / et Pardus / et Eficax / per Fl(avio) Alexandro patre.

Tauroctony relief exposed at the Hermitage Museum

C(auto)p(ati) / Primus pater fecit

Tauroctony relief of the Esquiline

C(auto)p(ati) Primus pater fecit

Mithraic Sol of Piazza Dante

Hic locus est felix sanctus piusque benignus / quem monuit Mithras mentemque dedit / Proficentio patri sacrorum / utque sibi spelaeum faceret dedicaretque / et celeri instansque operi reddit munera grata / quem bono auspicio suscepit anxia mente / ut possint syndexi hilares celebrare vota per aevm / hos versiculos generavit proficentius / pater dignissimus Mithrae // L(ucius) Castricius Probus d(onum) d(edit).
It is here a happy, pure and pious, beneficent place that Mithras indicated to Proficentius, Father of the rites (pater sacrorum), so that he could build a crypt (spelaeum) and dedicate it to him. And it is with celerity, without respite, that he accomplishes these precious missions undertaken under good auspices, so that the syndexi can, with joy, celebrate their vows, eternally.

These little verses were composed by Proficentius, a very worthy father of Mithras.

Inscription by Proficentius, Rome

Aebutius Restituti/anus qui et Proficen/tius antistes dei / Solis invicti Mithrae/ aram / d(onum) d(edit)
Aebutius Restitutianus, also Proficientius, high priest of the god of the invincible sun, gave the altar as a gift to Mithras

Altar from the Mitreo sotto la Basilica di San Lorenzo

To Zeus Helios great invincible Mithras and to the gods who share the same sanctuary, as a gift, Kastos father and Kastos son, sacred Raven, consecrated two bronze lamps, each with six wicks, and dedicated them while the fathers Loukios Satyrios Sporos and Paktoumeios Lausos, and the Lions Modestos, Paralios, Agathaemeros, Felix, Apamenios, Koedi (?) acted as servants (hyperetes).

Stele of the Arch of San Lazzaro

Dd(ominis) nn(ostris) Valente V et Valentiniano / iuniore primum Augg(ustis) VI idus april(es) / tradidit hierocoracica Aur(elius) Victor / Augentius v(ir) c(larissimus) p(ater) p(atrum) filio suo Emiliano / Corfoni Olympio c(larissimo) p(uero) anno tricensimo / acceptionis suae felic(iter).
Under (the Consulate) of our lords the Augustinians Valens, for the fifth time, and Valentinian the Younger, for the first time, on the sixth day before the ides of April, Aurelius Victor Augentius, clarissimo, Father of the Fathers, passed to his son Emilianus Corfo Olympius, clarissimo child, the attributes of the Sacred Raven, in the thirtieth year of his own admission, with happiness.

Altar dedicated by Pater Patrum Augentius

TAMESII / AUGENTII / OLYMPII /
Olim Victor avus, caelo devotus et astris
Regali sumptu Phoebeia templa locavit.
Hunc superat pietate nepos, cui nomen avitum est:
Antra facit, sumptusque tuos nec Roma requirit
Damna piis meliora lucro: quis ditior illo est
Qui cum caelicolis parcus bona dividit heres?
To Tamesius Augentius Olympius. In the past, Victor, the grandfather, a devotee of heaven and the stars, with the generosity of a king, erected temples to Phebus. The grandson, who bears his grandfather's name (Olympius), surpassed him in piety. He built antes without asking your contribution, Rome. Pious men prefer loss to gain. Who is richer than this heir who, with temperance, shares his goods with the inhabitants of heaven?

Inscription of Olympus to his grandfather

Constantio VIllI et Iuliano II con[s(ulibus)] / Nonius Victor Olympius v(ir) c(larissimus) p(ater) p(atrum) / et Aur(elius) Victor Augentius v(ir) [c(larissimus)] pater / tradiderunt leontica IIII idus / aug(ustas) felic(iter). / Alia tradiderunt cons(ulibus) supra s(criptis) / XVII kal(endas) oct(obres) felic(iter).
Under the Consulate of Constantius for the ninth time and Julian for the second time, Nonius Victor Olympus, clarissimo, Father of the Fathers, and Aurelius Victor Augentius, clarissimo, Father, transmitted the attributes of the Lion on the fourth day before the ides of August, with success. They transmitted others under the aforementioned consuls on the seventeenth day before the calends of October, with success.

Inscription of the Olympius for a Leo

Διί 'Ηλίω Μίθρα / άνεικήτω Κάστος / πατήρ καί Κάστος / ύιός / ύιός ίερός κόραξ.
To Zeus Helios Mithras invincible, Kastos father and Kastos son, Sacred Raven.

Inscription of Kastos father and son

D(is) M(anibus) / L. Septimius Aug(ustorum trium) lib(ertus) Archelaus / pater et sacerdos invicti / Mithrae domus Augustanae / fecit sibi et Cosiae Primitivae / coniugi benemerenti libertis liberta/busque posterisq(ue) eorum.
To the gods Manes. Lucius Septimius Archelaus, freedman of the three Augustans, Father and priest of the invincible Mithras, of the house of Augustus, made (this plaque) for him and Cosia Primitiva, his deserving wife, for their freedmen and freedwomen and for their posterity

Inscription of Septimius Archelaus

Soli invict[o Mithrae] / sacrarium [fecit] / P. Aelius Ur[banus or Urbicus] / sub A. Sergio Eutycho / sacerdote.
To the invincible sun Mithras. P. Aelius Urbanus built the sacred area when A. Sergius Eutychus was priest.

Marble slab with inscription of Aelius Urbanus

... ub sedente / Cossio / [A]tiniano / patre.
... where Pater Cossius Atinianus sat.

Fragments of plaque from Circo Massimo

Deo / invicto / Mithrae / C(aius) Lucretius Mnester / M(arcus) Aemilius Philetus / summag(istri) anni primi / M(arcus) Aemili Chrysanti / d(e) s(uo) d(onum) d(ederunt).

Orienti / Fructus Ponti (servus) / cum Myrone [f(ilio)] / sub M. Aemilio / Chrysantho / mag(istro) anni primi.

Soli / invicto / M. Aemilius / M(arcorum duorum) l(ibertus) Chrysanthus / mag(ister) anni primi et / M. Limbricius Polides / dec(urio) et sodalicio eius / d(e) (suo) d(onum) d(ederunt).
To the invincible god Mithras, Caius Lucretius Mnester, Marcus Aemilius Philetus, assistant masters of the first year of Marcus Aemilius Chrysantus, at their own expense, offered this gift.

In the East, Fructus, slave of Pontus, with [his] son Myro, under the orders of Marcus Aemilius Chrysanthus, master (magister) of the first year.

To Sol invincible, Marcus Aemilius Chrysanthus, freedman of the two Marcus, master of the first year and Marcus Limbricius Polides, decurion and member of his college, at their own expense, offered a gift.

Altars found near Santa Maria in Monticelli

Yperanthes / basem inbicto / donum / dedit [ab Mitra].
Yperanthes offered the plinth as a present to the invincible god Mithras.

Marble slab with inscription from Mitreo Barberini

Cn(aeus) Arrius Claudianus / pater posuit.
Pater Cnaeus Arrius Claudianus placed.

Altar from Mitreo di San Clemente

Deo Cautae / Aur(elius) Sabinus, pa/ter huius loci, / et Bebius Quinti/anus ex voto posu/erunt.
Leo vivas / cum Caedicio / patre.

Deo Cautae/opathi / Aur(elius) Sabinus, / pater huius loci, / et Bebius Quintianus / leo, / ex voto posuerunt.
Leo vivas cum / Caedicio / patre.
Au dieu Cautes, Aurelius Sabinus, Père de ce lieu, et Bebius Quintianus, à la suite d'un voeu, ont déposé.
Que vive le Lion, avec Caedicius, Père.

Au dieu Cautopates, Aurelius Sabinius, Père de ce lieu, et Bebius Quintianus, Lion, à la suite d'un voeu, ont déposé.
Que vive le Lion, avec Caedicius, Père.

Altars to Cautes and Cautopates of Stefano Rotondo

Soli / invicto / M. Aemilius / M(arcorum duorum) l(ibertus) Chrysanthus / mag(ister) anni primi et / M. Limbricius Polides / dec(urio) et sodalicio eius / d(e) (suo) d(onum) d(ederunt).
To Sol invincible, Marcus Aemilius Chrysanthus, freedman of the two Marcus, master of the first year and Marcus Limbricius Polides, decurion and member of his college, at their own expense, offered a gift.

Altar of Aemilius Chrysanthus to the Invincible Sol

D(eo) Arimanio / Agrestius v(ir) c(larissimus) / defensor / magister et / pater patrum / voti c(ompos) d(at).
To the god Arimanius, Agrestius, clarissimus, defensor (civitatis?), magister et Pater patrum, gives [this altar] according to his wish.

Altar to Arimanius of the Esquilino

Nama Nicephoro leoni; nama Theodoro leoni.
Nama Hel[io]doro leoni; Nama Gelasio leoni; Nama Phoebo leoni.
Tribute to Nicephoros, Lion; Tribute to Theodoros, Lion.
Tribute to Heliodoros, Lion; Tribute to Gelasios, Lion; Tribute to Poebus, Lion.

Fresco of lions at Santa Prisca

Soli / invicto Mithrae / T. Flavius Aug(usti) lib(ertus) Hyginus / Ephebianus / d(onum) d(edit).

Ἡλίῳ Μίθραι / Τ(ίτος) Φλάουιος Ὑγεῖος / διὰ Λολλίου Ρούφου / πατρὸς ἰδίου.
To Sol invincible Mithras, Titus Flavius Hyginus Ephebianus, freedman of the emperor, offered as a gift.

To Sol Mithras, Titus Flavius Hyginus, through Lollius Rufus, his pater.

Inscription of Santi Marcellino e Pietro al Laterano

Datiano et Cereale cons(ulibus) / Nonius Victor Olympius v(ir) cl(arissimus) p(ater) p(atrum) [et] / Aur(elius) Victor Augentius v(ir) c(larissimus) p(ater) / tradiderunt Persica pri(die) non(as) april(es) / fel(iciter). / Consulibus s(upra) sc(riptis) tradiderunt [h]eliaca / XVI kal(endas) ma/i(as) / felic(iter).
Under the consulship of (Censorius) Datianus and (Neratius) Cerealis, Nonius Victor Olympius, clarissimo, Father of the Fathers, and Aurelius Victor Augentius, clarissimo, Father, transmitted the attributes of the Persian on the eve of the nones of April, with success. Under the aforementioned consuls, they transmitted the attributes of the Sun, on the sixteenth day before the calendas of May, with success.

Altar to a Perses of S. Silvestro in Capite

Soli Invicto / Mithrae / pro salute Commod(i) / Antonini Aug(usti) domin(i) n(ostri) / M(arcus) Aurel(ius) Stertinius / Carpus una cum Carpo / proc(uratore) k(astrensi) patre et Her/mioneo et Balbino / fratribus / v(otum) s(olvit) f(eliciter)
To the Unconquerable Sun, Mithras, for the health of our lord Commodus Antoninus Augustus, Marcus Aurelius Stertinius Carpus, together with his father Carpus the procurator castrensis, and his brothers Hermioneus and Balbinus, happily fulfilled the vow

Altar to Mithras at the Walters Art Museum

[Domi]no sanct[o / o]ptimo maxim[o / sa]lutari iussu eius / libens dedit / [M(arcus)] Modius Ag/[atho] cum / [suis pro Faus]to / pat[rono].

Dedit M. Modius [Agatho] / sancto domino / invicto Mithrae / iussu eius libens / dedit.

[Lunae... / M.] M[od]/ius [Aga]/tho [cum] / suis permissu .....
To the saint invincible master Mithras, at his behest, [Marcus Modius Agatho] has willingly dedicated this.

M. Modius [Agatho] gave willingly to the holy master Unconquered Mithras, at his behest.

Fragments of a Mithriac relief with Jupiter and Sol

Iovi optimo maximo / caelestino fontibus et / Minervae et collegio / sanctissimo quod consis/tit in praedis Larci / Macedonis. / In curia. / Flavius Successus cum suis.

Altar with Minerva and a water god

Opt[i]mus maximus / Caelus aeternus Iup[i]/ter Iunoni Reginae / Minervae iussus liben[s] / dedit pro salutem suam / M(arcus) Modius Agatho et pr[o] / Fausti patroni hominis s(ancti?) / et Helpidis suae s(anctae?) cum s[uis].
Jupiter Optimus Maximus Caelus Aeternus, with Juno regina and Minerva. Marcus Modius Agatho gave [this monument] gladly, as ordered, for his safety, and for the safety of Faustuts, the most benign patronus, and of Helpidius and of his familiars.

Relief of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva

D(is) [M(anibus)]. / Sanct(a)e adquae pẹṛaenni (sic) bon(a)e me/moriae viṛis Aureliị(s) F̣austiniano patri / et Castricio fratri, sacerdotibus dii (sic) Solis / Invicti Mit(h)rae. (H)eredes aeorum (sic) prosecuti sunt ẹ[t] / b(onae) m(emoriae) Clodiae Celerianae matri f(ecerunt).
To the gods manes. To the pure and perennial good memory, to the men Aurelius Faustinianus, (their) father, and Aurelius Castricius, (their) brother, priests of the invincible god Sol Mithras. Their heirs accompany them; and in memory of Clodia Celeriana, (their) mother, (they) have made.

Mithraic slab from the catacombs of Vibia

Dis pater Aeracura // Fata divina // Mercurius / nuntius // Vibia Alcestis // Abreptio Vibi(a)es(!) et discensio // Septe(m) pii sacerdotes // Vincentius // Bonorum iudicio iudicati // Vibia // Angelus / bonus // Inductio / Vibi(a)es(!) // [Vi]ncenti hoc o[stium(?)] quiets quo vides plures me antecesserunt omnes expecto // Manduca ibe lude e[t] eni a me cum vies bene fac hoc tecum feres / Numinis antistes Sabazis Vincentius hic e[st q]ui sacra sancta / deum mente pia co[lui]t // D(is) M(anibus) / M(arcus) Aur(elius) [3 sacerdo]s d(ei) S(olis) I(nvicti) M(ithrae) / qui basium [v]oluptatem iocum alumnis suis dedit / ut locu[m sibi et coniugi(?) sua]e(?) et natis suis / [compararet(?)] en locus Carici[s(?)] / [3]so prols.
Dis Pater and Aericura, divinities of fate. Mercury, the messenger, watches over Vibia Alcestis. Her abduction and descent are acknowledged. Seven pious priests stand in observance. Vincentius, judged by the good, is seen as the good angel. He oversees the induction of Vibia, saying, 'This entrance to rest you see, many have preceded me, and I await all. Eat, drink, play, and when living, do well; you'll carry this with you.' Vincentius, the chief of the divine Sabazius, worshipped the sacred with a devout mind. Marcus Aurelius, a priest of the god Sol Mithras, bestowed joy and pleasure upon his students, securing a place for himself, his wife, and his children. Behold, the place of his lineage.

The Acosolium of the Mysteries in the Hypogeum of Vibia

deum sibi // sua pecunia

Tauroctony of Albergo Constanzi

S[oli] i(nvicto) M(ithrae) / et sodalicio eius / actores de foro suario / quorum nomina / [[sequuntur]]…
To Sol invincible Mithras and his college, the employees of the pig market, whose names [[follow ---]]

Colonne with inscription by workers of the pig market

M(atri) d(eum) m(agnae) I(deae) / et Attidi meno/tyranno conser/vatoribus suis Cae/lius Hilarianus v(ir) c(larissimus) / duodecimbyr (sic!) / urbis Romae / p(ater) s(acrorum) et hieroceryx / i(nvicti) M(ithrae) s(acerdos) d(ei) L(iberi) / s(acerdos) d(eae) / Hecate / d(omino) n(ostro) Gratiano aug(usto) / et Merobaude / cons(ulibus) III idus / maias.

Dis magnis /Ulpius Egnatius Faventinus / v(ir) c(larissimus) augur pub(licus) p(opuli) r(omani) q(uiritium) pater et hieroceryx d(ei) s(olis) i(nvicti) M(ithrae) / archibucolus dei Liberi / hierofanta Hecatae sa/cerdos Isidis percepto / taurobolio criobolioq(ue) / idibus augustis d(ominis) n(ostris) / Valente Aug(usto) V et Valentinia/no Aug(usto) co(n)s(ulibus) feliciter /
Vota Faventinus bis deni suscipit orbis
Ut mactet repetens aurata fronte bicornes.
To the great gods, Ulpius Egnatius Faventinus, clarissimus, public augur of the Roman people of the Quirites, sacred father and herald of the god Sol invincible Mithra, arch-herald of the god Liber, hierophant of Hecate, priest of Isis, having received the taurobolus and criobolus at the ides of August under the consulship of our lords Valens Augustus, consul for the fifth time, and Valentinian Augustus. Faventinus expresses the wish to have the good fortune to be able, in a period of twice ten (years), to renew the sacrifice of the two-horned animals with the golden forehead.

To the great Mother of the gods of Ida and to Attis, arbiter of the seasons, her protectors, Caelius Hilarianus, clarissimo, duodecemvir of the city of Rome, Father of the rites and sacred herald of the invincible Mithra, priest of the god Liber, priest of the goddess Hecate, under the consulship of our lord Gratian Augustus and Merobaude, on the third day before the ides of May.

Altars of two Clarissimi in the Phrygianum of the Vatican

Εἷς Ζεὺς / [[Σάραπις]] / ῞Ηλιος / κοσμοκράτωρ / ἀνείκητος.
Διὶ Ἡλίῳ / μεγάλῳ / Σαράπιδι / σωτῆρι / πλουτοδότῃ / ἐπηκόῳ / εὐργέτῃ / ἀνεικήτῳ / Μίθρα / χαριστήριον.
One is Zeus [[Sarapis]] Helios, lord of the world, invincible.
To Zeus Helios, great Sarapis, saviour, bringer of wealth, hearer of prayers, benefactor, invincible Mithras, in gratitude.

Cippus à Zeus Helios great Serapis

[Aurel]ius / Mithres / Aug(usti) l(ibertus) strator / Serapi d(onum) d(edit).
Aurelius Mithres, an imperial freedman and strator, offered this gift to Serapis.

Inscription of Aurelius Mithres

Deo sancto I(nvicto) M(ithrae) sacrathis (sic) d(onum) p(osuerunt) Placidus Marcellinus leo antis{ti}tes et Guntha leo.
To the holy unconquered Mithras (and) for the initiated devotees, Placidus Marcellinus leo and antistes and Guntha leo set up as a gift.

To the pure invincible god Mithras and his initiates, have placed this offering Placidus, Marcellinus, Leo (and) antistes, and Guntha, Leo.

Tauroctony of via di Borgo

Invicto d(eo) Navarze / Terentius Priscus / P(ublii) f(ilius) / Eucheta curante / et sacratis / d(onum) d(edit) c(ompos) b(oti).
To the invincible god Navarze, Terentius Priscus Eucheta, son of Publius, treated and initiated, offered this gift for a wish granted.

Base with inscription of Priscus Eucheta to Navarze

Doryphorus pater.

Candelabrum of Doryphorus

Deo Caute / Flavius Antistianus / v(ir) e(gregius) de decem primis pater patrum.
To the god Cautes, Flavius Antistianus, a distinguished man among the first ten, Pater Patrorum.

Inscription of Flavius Antistianus from Rome

[Pro salute / T. Aeli Antoni/ni] Aug(usti) e[t M(arci) Aeli / Au]reli Caes(aris) et / [L. Aur(eli) C]ommodi fil(iorum) / [Ael(ius?)] Sabinus c[ enturio ]leg(ionis) ... / [Sol?]i v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito).
For the health of Titus Aelius Antoninus Augustus and Marcus Aelius Aurelius Caesar and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, his sons, Aelius Sabinus, centurion of the legion, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow to Sol.

Inscription of Sabinus from San Clemente

M(atri) d(eorum) m(agnae) I(daeae) et Attidi Menoturanno s(acrum).
Nobilis in causis forma celsusq(ue) Sabinus
Hie pater Invieti mystica victor habet,
Sermo duos...... reservans
Consimiles aufert..... .
Et veneranda movet Cibeles triodeia signa:
Augentur meritis simbola tauroboli.
R(ufius) Cae(i)oni(us) Cae (ioni ?) Sabini f(ilius) v(ir) c(larissimus) p(ontifex) m(aior) hierof(anta) d(eae) Hecat(ae) aug(ur) / pub(licus) p(opuli) R(omani) Q(uiritium) pater sacror(um) invict(i) Methrae(sic) tauroboliatus / M(atris) d(eum) m(agnae) Id(aeae) et Attidis Minotiranni et aram IIII id(us) mart(ias) / Gratiano Vet Merobaude consulibus dedicabit.
Antiqua generose domo, cui regia Vestae
Pontifici felix sacrato militat igne,
Idem augur, triplicis cultor venerande Dianae,
Persidiciq(ue) Mithrae antistes Babilonie templi,
Tauroboliq(ue) simul magni dux mistice sacri.

Altar of Rufius Caeionius Sabinus

References